Elucidating the mechanism of cellular uptake and
Elucidating the mechanism of cellular uptake and - how to do online dating successfully
The discovery of cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) represents a major breakthrough for the transport of large-cargo molecules that may be useful in clinical applications.CPPs are rich in basic amino acids such as arginine and lysine and are able to translocate over membranes and gain access to the cell interior.
Finally, we present some key unanswered questions and remaining challenges to be addressed by the field.The cell membrane is the structure that protects living cells from the surrounding environment, only allowing the movement of compounds generally with small molecular size across this barrier into the cell.Some drugs are large hydrophilic molecules showing major limitations for their penetration through the cell membrane.A series of studies conducted in the 1980’s observed this process, and we have reanalyzed the results of these studies to help elucidate the molecular mechanism of particulate Ni uptake.Originally the process of uptake observed was described as phagocytosis, however in the context of recent research we hypothesize that the process is macropinocytosis and/or clathrin mediated endocytosis.These findings provide new perspectives on modulating the bioactivity of Ag-NPs by using carbohydrates. Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) in particular, show excellent anti-microbial properties and therefore are rapidly being incorporated into a wide array of consumer products such as textiles, cosmetics or packaging materials, increasing the likelihood of human and environmental exposure .
However, Ag-NPs exist in variety of different sizes and shapes but also, very important, with different coatings.
Cellular uptake was evaluated by confocal microscopy and ICP-MS.
Ag-NPs coated with galactose and mannose were considerably less toxic to neuronal-like cells and hepatocytes compared to particles functionalized by glucose, ethylene glycol or citrate.
These characteristics influence cellular uptake and toxicity.
Some particulate forms of Ni are carcinogenic and are directly and rapidly endocytized by cells.
Toxicity correlated to oxidative stress but not to cellular uptake.